Diarrhea in kids. Symptoms and Treatment
Diarrhea is a permanent (more than 2 times a day) liquid stool discharge through the more rapid bulk patency due to strengthening of its peristalsis or water absorption disruption in a large intestine. Diarrhea is also characterized by inflammatory secretion discharge in a fair quantity by intestinal wall.
In most cases, diarrhea is a signal of acute or chronic colitis (large intestine disease) or enteritis (small intestine disease).
Usually, infectious diarrhea is a result of dysentery, salmonellosis, alimentary toxic infections, viral infections (viral diarrhea), amebiasis and etcetera.
To date viral diarrhea is a widespread disease. The principle reason of infectious diarrhea in kids is rotavirus. As a rule this problem bothers kids under 2 years old in a form of sporadic case. Generally epidemic of rotaviral infections happens in winter. Rotavirus rarely provokes gastroenteritis in adults.
Incubation period of rotavirus lasts several days. The initial stage is characterized by acute vomit, then diarrhea and other symptoms of infection appear: temperate headaches, muscle pains, fever. Stomachache is not typical of viral gastroenteritis. Stool is liquid and contains little proteins and a lot of salt. Viral diarrhea in adults lasts 1-3 days; children suffer 2 times longer. Full-blown dehydration threatens a patient’s life thus a treatment is reduced to liquid compensation to get glucose and salt (glucose stimulates natrium absorption). A doctor prescribes 1.5 l of liquid to 1 l of stool; it is important to control skin vessels filling, mucous membranes.
In case of liquid stool, antibiotic therapy doesn’t favor the duration of a disease. Alimentary diarrhea is a result of long-term dietary pattern disruption, lack of vitamins, allergy to this or that foodstuff (strawberry, eggs, crabs and so on) or medicaments (iodine drugs, bromine, some sulfanilamides, antibiotics and etcetera).
Nervous indigestion is provoked by a disruption of alimentary bulk digestion due to secretory deficiency of stomach, pancreatic gland, liver and certain ferments insufficient discharge.
Toxic diarrhea appears as a result of renal failure (uraemia), mercury or arsenic poisoning.
Drug diarrhea is a cause of drug (often with antibiotics) repression of physiological flora of intestine and disbacteriosis development. Neurogenous diarrhea often happens through stresses and fear.
Stool frequency types under diarrhea: watery or it looks like gruel. In case of dysentery, faeces have dense consistency first, then – liquid and poor, it contains mucus and blood; if one has amebic dysentery, faeces contain hyaline mucous and blood. In certain cases it looks like crimson jelly. Usually diarrhea provokes stomachaches, tummy rumbling or abdominal swelling, rectal colic, tenesmus. The last ones characterized by underbelly pain and spasmodic reduction of rectum and its sphincter, defecation with mucous. Light diarrhea doesn’t affect general condition of a patient; strong and chronic disease leads to exhaustion, hypovitaminosis and notable alterations of organs.
In order to detect a cause of diarrhea, doctors examine faeces. An acute disease is characterized by carbolenum movement speed along the intestine (black faeces after carbolenum intake in 2-5 hours instead of normal 20-26 hours) or barium sulfate in case of X-ray inspection.
If a person suffers from hypovitaminosis, a doctor prescribes appropriate vitamins. In case of gastric achylia, one should take gastric juice or its substitutes. Pancreas deficiency is treated by Pancreatine or Pansynorm, festal and so on.
As far as diarrhea leads to liquid loss, it is necessary to compensate it. Salt solutions are required: dissolve 1 packet of salt mixture in 0,5 l of clean drinking water, boil and cool it in advance. Another efficient agent is Rehydron to contain natrium chloride – 3,5 gm., natrium citrate – 2,9 gm, potassium chloride – 2,5 gm, glucose – 10 gm. Also use Glucosan: (natrium chloride – 3,5 gm, sodium bicarbonate – 2,5 gm, potassium chloride – 1,5 gm, glucose – 20gm) and Citroglucosan: (natrium chloride –1.5 gm, potassium chloride – 1,25 gm, natrium citro-acid 2- aqueous – 1,45 gm, glucose – 7,5gm). It is required to prepare fresh salt solution each 12-24 hours. It is forbidden re-boil it.
A diet is usually prescribed in case of diarrhea without any infection (regular fractional feeding, limiting of carbohydrates and refractory fats of animals) and thorough chewing.
Symptomatic agents: calcium carbonate, bismuth medicines, tannalbin.
Medicinal herbal tea under diarrhea with anti-inflammatory, astringent and antiseptic effect:
- White alder (collective fruit) – 70,0
Polygonum bistorta (rhizome) – 30,0.
Also take 1/2-1/4 cup of decoction 3-4 times a day.
- Upright Potentilla (rhizome) – 10,0; Helichrysum bracteatum – 20,0; Caraway (bearing) – 20,0, Bilberry (berry) – 20,0; Sage (leaves) 30,0
Take 0,5 cup of decoction 2-3 times a day (15-20 minutes before eating).
- Polygonum bistorta (rhizome) – 20,0; Horse Gowan – 30,0
Take 0,5 cup of warm decoction 3-4 times a day (20-30 minutes before eating).
- Bird cherry (bearing) – 60,0
Bilberry (berry) – 40,0 Take 1/2-1/4 cup of decoction 3-4 times a day.
- Upright Potentilla (rhizome) –20,0
Polygonum bistort. Take 1/3-1/4 cup of decoction 3-4 times a day.
In case of diarrhea through disbacteriosis, a doctor may prescribe the next drugs to normalize microflora of intestine. Colybacterin, Lactobacterin, Bincolum, Bifidumbacterinum. If one noticed symptoms of cholera, salmonellosis, alimentary toxic infection, it is important to hospitalize a patient urgently.
Folk remedies under diarrhea and stomach upset
Dried films of chicken stomachs. When cutting, wash stomach and remove a film. Wash it in cold water and let it dry on a sheet of paper (the next day it will be dry). Powder it and take ½ or 1 teaspoon 2 times a day and wash it down with the water. Store it in a box in a dark, dry place.
- Dries pears decoction (anti-diarrheal effect);
- Starch solution. Dissolve one teaspoon of starch in ½ cup of cold boiled water. You can add some sugar to make it tasty. Take 1 cup 2-3 times a day.
- Walnuts septa solutions. Crack 300 gm of walnuts and take septa which separate parts of a core. Cover it with 250 ml of 70º alcohol and let it draw within 3 days. Adults: take 6-10 drops diluted with boiled water 3 times a day. It is not recommended for children.
- Tincture of grenade peel. Cover 1 teaspoon of dried grenade peel with 1 cup of water. Boil it 10-15 minutes; let it draw in a warm place within 2 hours. Pass it through a sieve. Take 1 tablespoon before eating 3 times a day. Little kids – 1 teaspoon.
- Cream of rice, prepared on water without salt for children and adults;
- Rice water for children under diarrhea – cover 1 teacup of well washed rice with 6-7 cups of water. Put it on a slow flame and boil it. Pass it through a sieve. It is recommended to give a child 1/3 cup each 2 hours.
Diet under diarrhea and stomach upset:
- 200 gm of dried white bread from extra quality of flour; bakery production is excluded.
- Non-fats soups on beef, fish broths with groats decoction (pearl barley, semolina, rice, cooked and grated meat, steam quenelles, meatballs, egg flocks).
- Meat and bird – non-fat and non- sinewy meats of beef, veal, turkey. Cook boiled cutlets, quenelles, meatballs, soufflé from boiled meat.
- Fish – non-fat sort of steamed fresh fish. Cook cutlets, meatballs.
- Dairy products- freshly made calcined curd or unsalted grated curd. Exclude whole milk and other dairy products.
- Eggs-1-2 lightly-boiled egg or steamed omelette.
- Groats – cooked gruels (rice, oatmeal or buckwheat groats).
- Vegetables only in soups.
- No snacks!
Drinks – tea, green tea, black coffee, cocoa on water, diluted fruit juices, except vine, plums and apricots.