Gynecology: Cervical Smears and Smear for purity
The most important swabs to take are cervical, urethra smears and smears for purity. Actually, a smear test is a simple way to find out causative organisms to provoke thrush, vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis and etcetera.
The reasons to take cervical smear:
- Vaginal discharge;
- Underbelly pain;
- Vaginal burning and itch;
- Long-term course of antibiotics;
- Pregnancy planning;
- Preventive examination.
Exclude any sex relations, lubricants, suppositories, pills and creams 1-2 days before a smear test.
It is not recommended to take a smear during menses as it may misrepresent lab result. One should not urinate 2-3 hours before a test. The day before you visit gynecologist, wash genitals with warm water without a soap. It is advisable to do the test at the first days after menses before a new cycle.
Interpreting Smear Results
The following data may be indicated:
Leucocytes in a smear test are usually small in number. The norm of leucocytes in vagina and urethra is no more than 10 to be in sight and no more than 30 in cervical canal of uterus. Increased quantity indicates inflammatory process.
During pregnancy, leucocytes quantity is a bit increased up to 20-30 to be in sight.
Pavement epitheliums are cells to line vagina mucous membrane surface and cervical canal of uterus. Its norm depends on menstrual cycle phase. As a rule, the quantity pavement epithelium is 5-10 cells. If it was not detected at all, it indicates epithelial layer atrophy; if it is increased, then it testifies inflammation.
A norm of Mucus is moderate quantity as it is produced by cervical channel vaginal glands.
Lactobacillus, also called “Döderlein’s bacillus” – micro flora of vagina contains them in quantity as a rule. Low norm of Lactobacillus testifies bacterial vaginosis.
Yeast – normal vaginal microflora to contain yeast small in quantity. If the norm is increased (more than 104 CFU/ml) along with vaginal itch and yeast discharge, then it indicates a thrush.
Key cells are squamous epithelial cells, covered with bacteria, called Gardneralla. Even its small quantity indicates this causative agent.
Lepthotrix – is anaerobic gram-negative bacteria in case of mixed genital infections, such as, bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis and clamidiosis. If these bacteria have been detected in a cervical test, a gynecologist may prescribe more serious examination.
Mobiluncus is anaerobe of women who suffer from candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis.
Trichomonad – elementary unicellular microorganism to provoke inflammatory process in urogenital area.
Diplococcic is a stimulant of gonorrhea. The norm is a diplococcic absence.
Colon bacillus – normal smear test contains small colon bacillus in quantities. High indicator testifies bacterial vaginosis, hygiene failure and feces in a smear.
Coccus (streptococcus, staphylococcus, enterococcus) are disease-producing germs. Normal vaginal flora contains them in a small quantity. If the quantity is increased, it may indicate some infection.
Letter Values indicate a smear zone. “U” is urethra; “V” is vagina; “C” is neck of the womb
Women’s normal smear indicators
|Microflora||large quantity of Gram-positive “Döderlein’s bacillus”||no||no|
Thus, vaginal purity level is defined according to above-listed results to reflect its microflora on the whole. There are 4 levels of vaginal purity in gynecology.
- Typical for healthy women. Vaginal microflora is optimal. This level is a rare indicator.
- Some deviations of microflora. The most widespread purity level among healthy women.
- Abnormality in a smear test. Increased quantity of bacillus, growth of opportunistic bacteria. It indicates inflammatory process.
- A significant abnormality in a smear test to testify bacterial vaginosis and some other genital infections.
A cervical smear is the 1st step of disease diagnosis. In case of deviations in a test, a doctor may prescribe to retest for bacterial inoculation and antibiotic susceptibility. Perhaps PCR diagnose method needs to be applied to reveal latent microbism of genital tracks.